Handcraft Department

TVET is concerned with the acquisition of knowledge and skills for the world of work. In the past various terms have been used to describe elements of the field that are now conceived as comprising TVET. The Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education held in Seoul in 1999 decided that the best, most comprehensive term to use is Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

This is any education, training and learning activity leading to the acquisition of knowledge, understanding and skills which are relevant for employment or self-employment. TVET serves here as an overarching term to describe all kinds of formal, non-formal and informal training and learning provided by or in all different institutions, providers and learning locations.

  1. Vocational training is a system which aims at providing recipients with the necessary knowledge and skills to exercise a profession in order to be integrated in the labour market. Vocational training includes initial Vocational Training and continuing Vocational Training.
  2. Technical Education is a structured system aimed at providing recipients with the necessary knowledge and skills to continue their studies at tertiary education level or 3 to exercise a profession in order to be integrated into the labour market. Technical Education, on the other hand puts more emphasis on theoretical education.
  3. Continuing TVET refers to training activities in which people take part in order to obtain knowledge and/or learn new skills for a current or a future job, to increase earnings, to improve carrier opportunities in a current or another field.

Constraints and strengths of the sector (SWOT Analysis)

This policy intends to consolidate and build on existing strengths and opportunities and at the same time addressing current and anticipated weaknesses and threats. Current situation can be summarised as follows:


  • High political will to strengthen TVET
  • TVET recognized as a national priority
  • Existing related policies/strategies e.g., Education Sector Policy, NICI Plan, National Policy of Science, Technology and Innovation
  • Existing institutions like Rwanda National Examinations Council (RNEC), National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC), etc
  • TVET office in the Ministry of Education
  •  Commitment of partners to support TVET development


  • Curriculum and teaching methods are not responding to labour market demands
  •  Poor and inadequate instructional materials and equipment
  • Existing institutions that are not responsive to TVET needs
  • Lack of qualified, competent and motivated teachers
  •  Absence of institutions linking TVET and labour market
  • Absence of key instruments for TVET development such as NQF
  •  Low level of public /private sector partnership (PPP).
  •  Under staff and low capacity of human resource in TVET planning and implementation.
  •  Uncoordinated TVET implementation by different ministries and private institutions.


  • Rwanda’s integration into regional economic blocks Ø International and regional concerns for TVET


  • Competing demands on education budget with other sub-sectors such as basic education, higher education, etc
  • Difficulties in linking TVET development to national and district development.
  • Competing capacity and skills of workers among the East African countries.

Vision and mission for the Sector

The vision of the TVET policy is to develop human resources potential taking into consideration equal access to necessary competence acquisition without any discrimination in order to prepare the Rwandan population to be productive and competitive and thus contribute to their welfare.

Mindful of conditions for sustainable economic, environmental and social development, TVET allows people to use present and future opportunities for development as individuals, enterprises and society. TVET prepares individuals for employment and entrepreneurship as well as contributes to the workforce and citizenship development. Thus, its mission is wide and includes:

  • development of a workforce able to use opportunities for a decent job, working with high productivity and protecting environment;
  • implementing strategies which enable youth especially women and vulnerable, to face the future with hope and confidence to possess the capacity for survival;
  • development of responsible citizens able to address issues related to sustainable production and consumption (e. g. efficient use of natural resources, reduce waste and pollution, enhance high quality products and services etc.);
  • preparation for entrepreneurship development and self employment; and
  • development of individual capacity for lifelong learning.

Overall Objectives

The overall objective of the TVET policy is to provide the economy with qualified and competitive workers and to train citizens able to participate in sustainable growth and poverty reduction by ensuring training opportunities to all social groups without discrimination. To achieve the goals of democratization and social, cultural and economic development, the empowerment of people to contribute to environmental sound sustainable development is decisive

The specific objectives of TVET policy are to:

  • assure guidance and counselling, planning, coordination, monitoring and evaluation of TVET activities;
  •  provide theoretical and practical trainings in all sectors matching with the needs of enterprises and international standards;
  •  satisfy quantitative and qualitative needs of priority sectors by training required manpower for the relevant qualification areas;
  • provide the graduates with required skills for profession i.e., ensure their employability and develop their ability to learn with autonomy during their professional life without any forms of discrimination and prepare them to self-employment; and
  • develop work values and attitudes of individuals towards professionalism expressed in quality, efficiency, creativity, adaptability, commitment, responsibility, and accountability, the spirit of service and genuine love of well-done work.


Designing a TVET policy is a multidisciplinary approach requiring wide consultations and involvement of all stakeholders. TVET Policy is an answer of the Government to the challenges of a sustainable pro-poor growth. With this Initiative, the TVET sector fits in with fundamental policies of the country and regional and international strategies. Therefore, TVET should be developed and to be applied on a legal framework and on the common will.

To accommodate the country needs, the government’s piloting in collaboration with enterprises is indispensable. This piloting can be stronger if decisions are made at the right beginning about indicators and criteria allow making a judgment on quality and efficiency of the system.

The public-private partnership is the key to maximise human resource development impact on increasing productivity and competitiveness of Rwandan economy as well as on opening a future for youth executing decent work in a sound environment. This partnership must ensure that TVET supports directly the use of economic growth potentials providing appropriately qualified workforce.